In 1199 , King Richard I (The Lion Heart) died from an infection following the removal of an arrow from his shoulder. He may have been King of England, but was actually French and was only present in England twice during his 10-year reign.
1320 - The Scots reaffirmed their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath.
1580 - An earth tremor damaged several London churches, including the old St Paul’s Cathedral.
1830 - The Mormon Church was established.
1831 - Mormon leader Brigham Young marred his 27th and final wife.
1896 - The first modern Olympic Games began in Athens, 1,500 years after the original games were banned by Roman emperor Theodosius I.
1909 - American explorer Robert Peary became the first person to reach the North Pole.
1917 - America officially entered the First World War.
1928 - Handshaking was banned in Italy as it was deemed unhygienic.
1938 - Teflon was invented by Roy Plunkett.
1944 - PAYE taxation was introduced.
1956 - Paramount Pictures signed Elvis Presley for a three-fill, five-year contract worth $450,000.
1957 - Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis bought the Hellenic National Airlines (TAE) and founded Olympic Airlines.
1965 - The Kray twins were found not guilty of running a protection racket.
1965 - Julie Andrews won an Oscar for Mary Poppins. It was her screen debut.
1968 - Cliff Richard came second in the Eurovision Song Contest to Spain’s La La La, which contained 139 ‘Las’.
1974 - Swedish pop band ABBA won the Eurovision Song Contest with Waterloo, launching their international career.
1980 - Post-It notes went on sale for the first time.
1994 - Rwandan Genocide began when an aircraft carrying Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down.
1998 - Country singer Tammy Wynette died from a blood clot on her lung at the age of 55.